Comparing One Critical Illness Insurance from Another

Your health is a very important investment. Your work, your finances and your future depend on it. You may feel fit and healthy, but critical illnesses can happen when you least expect it. Should it strikes you, you may find yourself unable to work, unable to fulfill your basic needs, and unable to pursue your career. On the top of it, your worries about money add up, causing you to get frustrated. To curb up your financial concerns, critical illness insurance is here to help you get through your condition. Here are a few steps that you should remember when comparing your life and critical illness cover.

1) Whenever you arelooking for a company providing critical illness insurance, make sure you get the one with the best reputation. Check if their payment schemes have a good track record towards their clients. If you are unsure if the company has a good history of insurance payments, you may look up at the website of the Better Business Bureau or similar organizations in your local area.

2) Each company’s insurance policy covers different types of illnesses, so you should check the list of illnesses they give benefits in. Choose the one that has an extensive list of illnesses covered, as you might not know what should come to you in the future. The common ones include stroke, heart attacks, kidney failure, amputations, and blindness, but also check for other non-communicable diseases like cancer.

3) Check out how much each company pays for each type of illness. Most companies provide policies for individuals with a lump-sum payment for 30 days. For instance, if you are diagnosed with leukemia, the firm may give you a sum of $15,000 that may be used for your medical expenses. When choosing a company, choose the one with the higher payout.

4) Each age group will have a different policy for premiums, which increase as one gets older. When looking the insurance policies of each company, compare the premiums you get in your particular age. Better premiums would mean you better options for your insurance coverage.

5) Make sure various payment options are available for your insurance company. Also, make sure the bills you will receive will be reasonable enough for you to pay within the time period. When the insurance reaches maturity, make sure the company also provides a number of ways to claim them.

Read more about critical illness insurance for more info about choosing the insurance company to cover your critical illness expenses.

cops

Serious Crime

Serious offences in England and Wales

1. Drug trafficking
2. People trafficking
3. Arms trafficking
4. Prostitution and child sex
5. Armed robbery etc.
6. Provisions of criminal property
7. Fraud
8. Public revenue offences
9. Corruption and bribery
10. Counterfeiting
11. Blackmail
12. Intellectual property
13. Environment
14. Inchoate offences
15. Earlier offences
16. Scope of offences
Drug trafficking

1(1)An offence under any of the following provisions of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (c. 38)—
(a)section 4(2) or (3) (unlawful production or supply of controlled drugs);

(b)section 5(3) (possession of controlled drug with intent to supply);

(c)section 8 (permitting etc. certain activities relating to controlled drugs);

(d)section 20 (assisting in or inducing the commission outside the United Kingdom of an offence punishable under a corresponding law).

(2)An offence under any of the following provisions of the Customs and Excise Management Act 1979 (c. 2) if it is committed in connection with a prohibition or restriction on importation or exportation which has effect by virtue of section 3 of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971—

(a)section 50(2) or (3) (improper importation of goods);

(b)section 68(2) (exportation of prohibited or restricted goods);

(c)section 170 (fraudulent evasion of duty etc.).

(3)An offence under either of the following provisions of the Criminal Justice (International Co-operation) Act 1990 (c. 5)—

(a)section 12 (manufacture or supply of a substance for the time being specified in Schedule 2 to that Act);

(b)section 19 (using a ship for illicit traffic in controlled drugs).

People trafficking

2(1)An offence under section 25, 25A or 25B of the Immigration Act 1971 (c. 77) (assisting unlawful immigration etc.).
(2)An offence under any of sections 57 to 59 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 (c. 42) (trafficking for sexual exploitation).

(3)An offence under section 4 of the Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants, etc.) Act 2004 (c. 19) (trafficking people for exploitation).

Arms trafficking

3(1)An offence under either of the following provisions of the Customs and Excise Management Act 1979 (c. 2) if it is committed in connection with a firearm or ammunition—
(a)section 68(2) (exportation of prohibited or restricted goods);

(b)section 170 (fraudulent evasion of duty etc.).

(2)An offence under section 3(1) of the Firearms Act 1968 (c. 27) (dealing etc. in firearms or ammunition by way of trade or business without being registered).

(3)In this paragraph “firearm” and “ammunition” have the same meanings as in section 57 of the Firearms Act 1968.

Prostitution and child sex

4(1)An offence under section 33A of the Sexual Offences Act 1956 (c. 69) (keeping a brothel used for prostitution).
(2)An offence under any of the following provisions of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 (c. 42)—

(a)section 14 (arranging or facilitating commission of a child sex offence);

(b)section 48 (causing or inciting child prostitution or pornography);

(c)section 49 (controlling a child prostitute or a child involved in pornography);

(d)section 50 (arranging or facilitating child prostitution or pornography);

(e)section 52 (causing or inciting prostitution for gain);

(f)section 53 (controlling prostitution for gain).

Armed robbery etc.

5(1)An offence under section 8(1) of the Theft Act 1968 (c. 60) (robbery) where the use or threat of force involves a firearm, an imitation firearm or an offensive weapon.
(2)An offence at common law of an assault with intent to rob where the assault involves a firearm, imitation firearm or an offensive weapon.

(3)In this paragraph—

“firearm” has the meaning given by section 57(1) of the Firearms Act 1968;
“imitation firearm” has the meaning given by section 57(4) of that Act;
“offensive weapon” means any weapon to which section 141 of the Criminal Justice Act 1988 (c. 33) (offensive weapons) applies.
Money laundering

6An offence under any of the following provisions of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (c. 29)—
(a)section 327 (concealing etc. criminal property);

(b)section 328 (facilitating the acquisition etc. of criminal property by or on behalf of another);

(c)section 329 (acquisition, use and possession of criminal property).

Fraud

7(1)An offence under section 17 of the Theft Act 1968 (c. 60) (false accounting).
(2)An offence under any of the following provisions of the Fraud Act 2006 (c. 35)—

(a)section 1 (fraud by false representation, failing to disclose information or abuse of position);

(b)section 6 (possession etc. of articles for use in frauds);

(c)section 7 (making or supplying articles for use in frauds);

(d)section 9 (participating in fraudulent business carried on by sole trader etc.);

(e)section 11 (obtaining services dishonestly).

(3)An offence at common law of conspiracy to defraud.

Offences in relation to public revenue

8(1)An offence under section 170 of the Customs and Excise Management Act 1979 (c. 2) (fraudulent evasion of duty etc.) so far as not falling within paragraph 1(2)(c) or 3(1)(b) above.
(2)An offence under section 72 of the Value Added Tax Act 1994 (c. 23) (fraudulent evasion of VAT etc.).

(3)An offence under section 144 of the Finance Act 2000 (c. 17) (fraudulent evasion of income tax).

(4)An offence under section 35 of the Tax Credits Act 2002 (c. 21) (tax credit fraud).

(5)An offence at common law of cheating in relation to the public revenue.

Corruption and bribery

9(1)An offence under section 1 of the Public Bodies Corrupt Practices Act 1889 (c. 69) (corruption in public office).
(2)An offence which is the first or second offence under section 1(1) of the Prevention of Corruption Act 1906 (c. 34) (corrupt transactions with agents other than those of giving or using false etc. documents which intended to mislead principal).

(3)An offence at common law of bribery.

Counterfeiting

10An offence under any of the following provisions of the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981 (c. 45)—
(a)section 14 (making counterfeit notes or coins);

(b)section 15 (passing etc. counterfeit notes or coins);

(c)section 16 (having custody or control of counterfeit notes or coins);

(d)section 17 (making or having custody or control of counterfeiting materials or implements).

Blackmail

11(1)An offence under section 21 of the Theft Act 1968 (c. 60) (blackmail).
(2)An offence under section 12(1) or (2) of the Gangmasters (Licensing) Act 2004 (c. 11) (acting as a gangmaster other than under the authority of a licence, possession of false documents, etc.).

Intellectual property

12(1)An offence under any of the following provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (c. 48)—
(a)section 107(1)(a), (b), (d)(iv) or (e) (making, importing or distributing an article which infringes copyright);

(b)section 198(1)(a), (b) or (d)(iii) (making, importing or distributing an illicit recording);

(c)section 297A (making or dealing etc. in unauthorised decoders).

(2)An offence under section 92(1), (2) or (3) of the Trade Marks Act 1994 (c. 26) (unauthorised use of trade mark etc.).

Environment

13(1)An offence under section 1 of the Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act 1975 (c. 51) (fishing for salmon, trout or freshwater fish with prohibited implements etc.).
(2)An offence under section 14 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (c. 69) (introduction of new species etc.).

(3)An offence under section 33 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 (c. 43) (prohibition on unauthorised or harmful deposit, treatment or disposal etc. of waste).

(4)An offence under regulation 8 of the Control of Trade in Endangered Species (Enforcement) Regulations 1997 (S.I. 1997/1372) (purchase and sale etc. of endangered species and provision of false statements and certificates).

Inchoate offences

14(1)An offence of attempting or conspiring the commission of an offence specified or described in this Part of this Schedule.
(2)An offence under Part 2 of this Act (encouraging or assisting) where the offence (or one of the offences) which the person in question intends or believes would be committed is an offence specified or described in this Part of this Schedule.

(3)An offence of aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the commission of an offence specified or described in this Part of this Schedule.

(4)The references in sub-paragraphs (1) to (3) to offences specified or described in this Part of this Schedule do not include the offence at common law of conspiracy to defraud.

Earlier offences

15(1)This Part of this Schedule (apart from paragraph 14(2)) has effect, in its application to conduct before the passing of this Act, as if the offences specified or described in this Part included any corresponding offences under the law in force at the time of the conduct.
(2)Paragraph 14(2) has effect, in its application to conduct before the passing of this Act or before the coming into force of section 59 of this Act, as if the offence specified or described in that provision were an offence of inciting the commission of an offence specified or described in this Part of this Schedule.

Scope of offences

16 Where this Part of this Schedule refers to offences which are offences under the law of England and Wales and another country, the reference is to be read as limited to the offences so far as they are offences under the law of England and Wales.

Part 2

Serious offences in Northern Ireland

17. Drug trafficking
18. People trafficking
19. Arms trafficking
20. Prostitution and child sex
21. Armed robbery etc.
22. Provisions of criminal property
23. Fraud
24. Public revenue offences
25. Corruption and bribery
26. Counterfeiting
27. Blackmail
28. Intellectual property
29. Environment
30. Inchoate offences
31. Earlier offences
32. Scope of offences
Drug trafficking

17(1)An offence under any of the following provisions of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (c. 38)—
(a)section 4(2) or (3) (unlawful production or supply of controlled drugs);

(b)section 5(3) (possession of controlled drug with intent to supply);

(c)section 8 (permitting etc. certain activities relating to controlled drugs);

(d)section 20 (assisting in or inducing the commission outside the United Kingdom of an offence punishable under a corresponding law).

(2)An offence under any of the following provisions of the Customs and Excise Management Act 1979 (c. 2) if it is committed in connection with a prohibition or restriction on importation or exportation which has effect by virtue of section 3 of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971—

(a)section 50(2) or (3) (improper importation of goods);

(b)section 68(2) (exportation of prohibited or restricted goods);

(c)section 170 (fraudulent evasion of duty etc.).

(3)An offence under either of the following provisions of the Criminal Justice (International Co-operation) Act 1990 (c. 5)—

(a)section 12 (manufacture or supply of a substance for the time being specified in Schedule 2 to that Act);

(b)section 19 (using a ship for illicit traffic in controlled drugs).

People trafficking

18(1)An offence under section 25, 25A or 25B of the Immigration Act 1971 (c. 77) (assisting unlawful immigration etc.).
(2)An offence under any of sections 57 to 59 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 (c. 42) (trafficking for sexual exploitation).

(3)An offence under section 4 of the Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants, etc.) Act 2004 (c. 19) (trafficking people for exploitation).

Arms trafficking

19(1)An offence under either of the following provisions of the Customs and Excise Management Act 1979 (c. 2) if it is committed in connection with a firearm or ammunition—
(a)section 68(2) (exportation of prohibited or restricted goods);

(b)section 170 (fraudulent evasion of duty etc.).

(2)An offence under Article 24 of the Firearms (Northern Ireland) Order 2004 (S.I. 2004/702 (N.I.3)) (dealing etc. in firearms or ammunition by way of trade or business without being registered).

(3)In this paragraph “firearm” and “ammunition” have the same meanings as in Article 2(2) of the Firearms (Northern Ireland) Order 2004.

Prostitution and child sex

20(1)An offence under section 13(1) of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885 (c. 69) (keeping a brothel used for prostitution).
(2)An offence under any of the following provisions of the Sexual Offences Act 2003—

(a)section 48 (causing or inciting child prostitution or pornography);

(b)section 49 (controlling a child prostitute or a child involved in pornography);

(c)section 50 (arranging or facilitating child prostitution or pornography);

(d)section 52 (causing or inciting prostitution for gain);

(e)section 53 (controlling prostitution for gain).

Armed robbery etc.

21(1)An offence under section 8(1) of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969 (c. 16 (N.I.)) (robbery) where the use or threat of force involves a firearm, an imitation firearm or an offensive weapon.
(2)An offence at common law of an assault with intent to rob where the assault involves a firearm, imitation firearm or an offensive weapon.

(3)In this paragraph—

“firearm” and “imitation firearm” have the meaning given by Article 2(2) of the Firearms (Northern Ireland) Order 2004;
“offensive weapon” means any weapon to which section 141 of the Criminal Justice Act 1988 (c. 33) (offensive weapons) applies.
Money laundering

22 An offence under any of the following provisions of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (c. 29)—
(a)section 327 (concealing etc. criminal property);

(b)section 328 (facilitating the acquisition etc. of criminal property by or on behalf of another);

(c)section 329 (acquisition, use and possession of criminal property).

Fraud

23(1)An offence under section 17 of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969 (c. 16 (N.I.)) (false accounting).
(2)An offence under any of the following provisions of the Fraud Act 2006 (c. 35)—

(a)section 1 (fraud by false representation, failing to disclose information or abuse of position);

(b)section 6 (possession etc. of articles for use in frauds);

(c)section 7 (making or supplying articles for use in frauds);

(d)section 9 (participating in fraudulent business carried on by sole trader etc.);

(e)section 11 (obtaining services dishonestly).

(3)An offence at common law of conspiracy to defraud.

Offences in relation to public revenue

24(1)An offence under section 170 of the Customs and Excise Management Act 1979 (c. 2) (fraudulent evasion of duty etc.) so far as not falling within paragraph 17(2)(c) or 19(1)(b) above.
(2)An offence under section 72 of the Value Added Tax Act 1994 (c. 23) (fraudulent evasion of VAT etc.).

(3)An offence under section 144 of the Finance Act 2000 (c. 17) (fraudulent evasion of income tax).

(4)An offence under section 35 of the Tax Credits Act 2002 (c. 21) (tax credit fraud).

(5)An offence at common law of cheating in relation to the public revenue.

Corruption and bribery

25(1)An offence under section 1 of the Public Bodies Corrupt Practices Act 1889 (c. 69) (corruption in public office).
(2)An offence which is the first or second offence under section 1(1) of the Prevention of Corruption Act 1906 (c. 34) (corrupt transactions with agents other than those of giving or using false etc. documents which intended to mislead principal).

(3)An offence at common law of bribery.

Counterfeiting

26An offence under any of the following provisions of the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981 (c. 45)—
(a)section 14 (making counterfeit notes or coins);

(b)section 15 (passing etc. counterfeit notes or coins);

(c)section 16 (having custody or control of counterfeit notes or coins);

(d)section 17 (making or having custody or control of counterfeiting materials or implements).

Blackmail

27(1)An offence under section 20 of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969 (c. 16) (blackmail).
(2)An offence under section 12(1) or (2) of the Gangmasters (Licensing) Act 2004 (c. 11) (acting as a gangmaster other than under the authority of a licence, possession of false documents, etc.).

Intellectual property

28(1)An offence under any of the following provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (c. 48)—
(a)section 107(1)(a), (b), (d)(iv) or (e) (making, importing or distributing an article which infringes copyright);

(b)section 198(1)(a), (b) or (d)(iii) (making, importing or distributing an illicit recording);

(c)section 297A (making or dealing etc. in unauthorised decoders).

(2)An offence under section 92(1), (2) or (3) of the Trade Marks Act 1994 (c. 26) (unauthorised use of trade mark etc.).

Environment

29(1)An offence under section 62 or 63 of the Fisheries Act (Northern Ireland) 1966 (c. 17 (N.I.)) (prohibition of certain methods of fishing).
(2)An offence under Article 15 of the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order 1985 (S.I. 1985/171 (N.I.2)) (introduction of new species, etc.).

(3)An offence under Article 4 of the Waste and Contaminated Land (Northern Ireland) Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2778 (N.I.19)) (prohibition on unauthorised or harmful deposit, treatment or disposal, etc. of waste).

(4)An offence under regulation 8 of the Control of Trade in Endangered Species (Enforcement) Regulations 1997 (S.I. 1997/1372) (purchase and sale etc. of endangered species and provision of false statements and certificates).

Inchoate offences

30(1)An offence of attempting or conspiring the commission of an offence specified or described in this Part of this Schedule.
(2)An offence under Part 2 of this Act (encouraging or assisting) where the offence (or one of the offences) which the person in question intends or believes would be committed is an offence specified or described in this Part of this Schedule.

(3)An offence of aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the commission of an offence specified or described in this Part of this Schedule.

(4)The references in sub-paragraphs (1) to (3) to offences specified or described in this Part of this Schedule do not include the offence at common law of conspiracy to defraud.

Earlier offences

31(1)This Part of this Schedule (apart from paragraph 30(2)) has effect, in its application to conduct before the passing of this Act, as if the offences specified or described in this Part included any corresponding offences under the law in force at the time of the conduct.
(2)Paragraph 30(2) has effect, in its application to conduct before the passing of this Act or before the coming into force of section 59 of this Act, as if the offence specified or described in that provision were an offence of inciting the commission of an offence specified or described in this Part of this Schedule.

Scope of offences

32Where this Part of this Schedule refers to offences which are offences under the law of Northern Ireland and another country, the reference is to be read as limited to the offences so far as they are offences under the law of Northern Ireland.

financial

Financial Offences

What is financial crime?

The Financial Services and Markets Act (FSMA) defines financial crime as including ‘any offence involving (a) fraud or dishonesty; (b) misconduct in, or misuse of information relating to, a financial market; or (c) handling the proceeds of crime’. So this is not an exhaustive list and includes, for example, corruption or funding terrorism. During the course of the review the visit teams spent time with firms explaining how their firms or business could be exploited for the purposes of financial crime. Examples of how small firms may be affected are listed below:
A firm directly suffers from a financial crime if, for example:

• the firm is defrauded by an employee (e.g. a company director embezzles corporate funds);
• the firm is defrauded by a customer (e.g. a borrower gives false details and disappears); or
• the firm is defrauded by organised criminals (e.g. a gang stage a motor accident and claim against an insurance policy).

A firm is exploited as a vehicle for financial crime if, for example:

• criminals use the firm’s services to launder the proceeds of crime;
• a firm’s customer makes payments to terrorists (eg: in December 2007, three men were convicted in Germany on charges of attempting to raise 4.3 million British Pound Sterlings for Terroist groups by faking a death to collect on nine life insurance policies); and
• customer data held by the firm is stolen and used to commit identify theft.

A firm, or a representative of the firm, carries out a financial crime, perhaps in collusion with another party if, for example:

• an advisor knowingly overstates the income of a customer to obtain a mortgage for which the customer was not otherwise eligible.

arrest

Criminal Offences

An act punishable by law in criminal courts of England & Wales. This does not include civil offences that may be categorised as criminal for the purposes of ensuring adequate procedural safeguards by the European Court of Human Rights.

The offences included in the scheme are summary offences where the most likely court outcome would be a fine. Offences for which a penalty notice may be issued include:

  • theft from a shop – Section 1 Theft Act 1968 (retail under £100)
  • cannabis possession – (over 18s only) (second simple possession offence) – Section 5(2) & Sch. 4 Misuse of Drugs Act 1971
  • criminal damage – Section 1(1) Criminal Damage Act 1971 (only applies to damage under £300 in value)
  • using words/conduct likely to cause fear of harassment, alarm or distress – section 5 Public Order Act 1986
  • being drunk and disorderly in a public place – Section 91 Criminal Justice Act 1967

No admission of guilt is required, and by paying the penalty, a recipient discharges liability for conviction for the offence. However, PNDs issued for offences such as retail theft, criminal damage, cannabis possession, and being drunk and disorderly are recorded on the police national computer (PNC). A facility is available on the PNC which allows an entry to be recorded which does not constitute a record of criminal conviction.

PNDs may be disclosed as part of an enhanced criminal records check, if deemed relevant to the enquiry, by the chief officer of police.

criminal

Criminal Law UK

In overview of UK criminal law, we look at why we’ve got criminal law within the initial place, and so go to outline what constitutes against the law.The article then examines the method we tend to classify differing types of crime, and what it takes to prove against the law.

Why do we have Criminal Law?

Criminal Law has three main objectives: to provide security to the people, to maintain law and order in society, and to punish the culprits. Some believe that Criminal Law should also enforce moral values, but this is controversial, and there basically two schools of thought as represented by the Wolfenden Committee and Lord Devlin:

The Wolfenden Committee in 1957 determined that law should only interfere with private lives in order to preserve public order and protect citizens

Lord Devlin’s, ‘Enforcement of Morals’ in 1965 stated that, ‘there are acts so gross and outrageous that they must be prevented at any cost.’

This basic difference in views is unresolved, and this is illustrated by the inconsistent sentencing of those brought to trials for engaging in mutually agreed sado-masochistic activities – there are examples of convictions for assault causing actual bodily harm, and others where S&M defendants have been found not guilty.

What is considered a crime?

A crime is something that the State has determined as being criminal and punishable. so there’s a giant variation within the definition of crimes between countries, because the governments’ completely different values square measure mirrored among their laws. what is more, among a rustic the definitions of crimes amendment as their values amendment over time.

If you’re taking a glance at the age of consent in varied countries you may see a big distinction on below what age it’s thought of criminal to have interaction in sex. For variations in what’s thought of criminal dynamical among a rustic simply take a glance at booming porno trade underneath the executive, and therefore the legal issues it faced underneath the Bush administration. Another example is that the evolving acceptance of homo eroticism in Western countries because it is shifted from criminal, to lower and lower ages of consent, through to gay wedding.

However, not all legal code is gone the state: generally the rulings of judges produce new criminal definitions by making a uniform chronicle that makes a replacement criminal classification, because it did within the case of matrimonial rape.

For almost all crimes each activity and preparation should be gift. The activity is that the physical component of the crime, it primarily means that the guilty act itself. The preparation is that the guilty mind that has to even be gift. while not a wrongful state of mind a wrongful act isn’t criminal. The exception to the current rule is crimes of Strict Liability that no guilty mind is needed.

How are crimes classified?

There are many different types of crimes, and many ways to classify them.

Classifying Crimes: The Method Used by Criminals, Solicitors or Barristors and Prosecutors

Crimes are tried in different ways, and can be classified as such:

  • “Indictable Offences” – theses are tried on indictment at the Crown Court, and include serious crimes like murder and rape
  • “Triable Either Way” – theses are tried on indictment at the Crown Court or at the Magistrates Court, and include crimes such as burglary, theft and some forms of assault
  • “Summary Offences” – these are tried only at the Magistrates Court, and cover crimes that have less than GBP5,000 of damage in terms of cost, and offences such as common assault

Classifying Crimes: The Method Used by Academics

Another way to classify crimes is by their source, but such a classification is more the concern of law professors, than a practical one. The sources of crimes are:

  • “Common Law” – these are made by judges
  • “Statutory” – these are defined in an Act of Parliament
  • “Regulatory” – these are defined in delegated legislation

Classifying Crimes: The Method Used by Policemen

Whilst academics have their classification, the police tend to look at crimes in terms of what their powers are in relation to the treatment of suspects:

“Serious Arrestable Offences” – Police can detain the suspect for 36 hours, extended up to 96 with the permission of magistrates. Crimes such as rape, murder and manslaughter fall under this category
“Arrestable Offences” – these are defined in the Criminal Justice Act of 1967 and cover any offence with a sentence fixed by law, any offence where the maximum sentence is in excess of five years, and any crime which Parliament makes arrestable

Non-arrestable offences

Classifying Crimes: The Victim’s Perspective

There are three main categories when one considers the harm done by the crime:

  • A crime against a person
  • A crime against property
  • A crime against public order

How do you prove a crime?

It is down to the prosecution to prove that a crime has been committed, and the defendant is presumed innocent until proven guilty. The prosecution must demonstrate both actus reus and mens rea, and the proof must be ‘beyond reasonable doubt.’

Whilst the defendant is not obliged to raise a defense it is typical for them to do so, the prosecutor must then set out to negate this defense. For example, if a defendant states that a vehicle ran over the victim accidentally, a prosecutor seeking a conviction for murder may set out to prove it was intentional. There are, however, some defenses that the defendant must make, for example, if he is pleading insanity.